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1.
A parallel adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) scheme is described for solving the governing equations of ideal magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) in three space dimensions. This solution algorithm makes use of modern finite-volume numerical methodology to provide a combination of high solution accuracy and computational robustness. Efficient and scalable implementations of the method have been developed for massively parallel computer architectures and high performance achieved. Numerical results are discussed for a simplified model of the initiation and evolution of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) in the inner heliosphere. The results demonstrate the potential of this numerical tool for enhancing our understanding of coronal and solar wind plasma processes. This revised version was published online in June 2006 with corrections to the Cover Date.  相似文献
2.
Understanding properties of solar energetic particle (SEP) events associated with coronal mass ejections has been identified as a key problem in solar-terrestrial physics. Although recent CME shock acceleration models are highly promising, detailed agreement between theoretical predictions and observations has remained elusive. Recent observations from ACE have shown substantial enrichments in the abundances of 3He and He+ ions which are extremely rare in the thermal solar wind plasma. Consequently, these ions act as tracers of their source material, i.e., 3He ions are flare suprathermals and He+ ions are interstellar pickup ions. The average heavy ion composition also exhibits unsystematic differences when compared with the solar wind values, but correlates significantly with the ambient suprathermal material abundances. Taken together these results provide compelling evidence that CME-driven shocks draw their source material from the ubiquitous but largely unexplored suprathermal tail rather than from the more abundant solar wind peak. However, the suprathermal energy regime has many more contributors and exhibits much larger variability than the solar wind, and as such needs to be investigated more thoroughly. Answers to fundamental new questions regarding the preferred injection of the suprathermal ions, the spatial and temporal dependence of the various sources, and the causes of their variability and their effects on the SEP properties are needed to improve agreement between the simulations and observations.  相似文献
3.
This workshop summary tries to distill the key difficulties and questions in the art of (I)CME physics and strategies to address them. (I)CMEs are multi-dimensional, multi-parameter, and multi-scale phenomena related to the solar dynamo, corona, and heliosphere. This workshop illustrates the immense progress made in describing and modeling these spectacular energetic solar events, but also shows clear shortcomings in our understanding of them.  相似文献
4.
The heliospheric counterparts of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) at the Sun, interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs), can be identified in situ based on a number of magnetic field, plasma, compositional and energetic particle signatures as well as combinations thereof. We summarize these signatures and their implications for understanding the nature of these structures and the physical properties of coronal mass ejections. We conclude that our understanding of ICMEs is far from complete and formulate several challenges that, if addressed, would substantially improve our knowledge of the relationship between CMEs at the Sun and in the heliosphere.  相似文献
5.
It is generally accepted that the energy that drives coronal mass ejections (CMEs) is magnetic in origin. Sheared and twisted coronal fields can store free magnetic energy which ultimately is released in the CME. We explore the possibility of the specific magnetic configuration of a magnetic flux rope of field lines that twist about an axial field line. The flux rope model predicts coronal observables, including heating along forward or inverse S-shaped, or sigmoid, topological surfaces. Therefore, studying the observed evolution of such sigmoids prior to, during, and after the CME gives us crucial insight into the physics of coronal storage and release of magnetic energy. In particular, we consider (1) soft-X-ray sigmoids, both transient and persistent; (2) The formation of a current sheet and cusp-shaped post-flare loops below the CME; (3) Reappearance of sigmoids after CMEs; (4) Partially erupting filaments; (5) Magnetic cloud observations of filament material.  相似文献
6.
Our current understanding of the acceleration of solar-energetic particles is reviewed. The emphasis in this paper is on analytic theory and numerical modeling of the physics of diffusive shock acceleration. This mechanism naturally produces an energy spectrum that is a power law over a given energy interval that is below a characteristic energy where the spectrum has a break, or a rollover. This power law is a common feature in the observations of all types of solar-energetic particles, and not necessarily just those associated with shock waves (e.g. events associated with impulsive solar flares which are often described in terms of resonant stochastic acceleration). Moreover, the spectral index is observed to have remarkably little variability from one event to the next (about 50%). Any successful acceleration mechanism must be able to produce this feature naturally and have a resulting power-law index that does not depend on physical parameters that are expected to vary considerably. Currently, only diffusive shock acceleration does this.  相似文献
7.
While interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs) are understood to be the heliospheric counterparts of CMEs, with signatures undeniably linked to the CME process, the variability of these signatures and questions about mapping to observed CME features raise issues that remain on the cutting edge of ICME research. These issues are discussed in the context of traditional understanding, and recent results using innovative analysis techniques are reviewed.  相似文献
8.
In this paper I will briefly summarize the present status of our knowledge on the four different sorts of solar wind, their sources and their short- and long-term variations. First: the fast solar wind in high-speed streams that emerges from coronal hole regions. Second: the slow solar wind emerging from the non-active Sun near the global heliospheric current sheet above helmet streamers and underlying active regions. Third: the slow solar wind filling most of the heliosphere during high solar activity, emerging above active regions in a highly turbulent state, and fourth: the plasma expelled from the Sun during coronal mass ejections. The coronal sources of these different flows vary dramatically with the solar activity cycle.  相似文献
9.
Coronal mass ejections and post-shock streams driven by them are the most efficient drivers of strong magnetospheric activity, magnetic storms. For this reason there is considerable interest in trying to make reliable forecasts for the effects of CMEs as much in advance as possible. To succeed this requires understanding of all aspects related to CMEs, starting from their emergence on the Sun to their propagation to the vicinity of the Earth and to effects within the magnetosphere. In this article we discuss some recent results on the geoeffectivity of different types of CME/shock structures. A particularly intriguing observation is that smoothly rotating magnetic fields within CMEs are most efficient in driving storm activity seen in the inner magnetosphere due to enhanced ring current, whereas the sheath regions between the shock and the ejecta tend to favour high-latitude activity.  相似文献
10.
Recent progress in measuring the composition and energy spectra of solar energetic particles (SEPs) accelerated by CME-driven shocks is reviewed, including a comparison of the observed charge-to-mass dependence of breaks in SEP spectra with model predictions. Also discussed is a comparison of SEP and CME kinetic energies in seventeen large SEP events, and estimates of the SEP radiation dose that astronauts would be subject to once they venture outside the protective cover of Earth’s magnetosphere.  相似文献
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